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Sri Lanka’s demographic trends by gender based on Census of Population and Housing in 2012, portrays the changes taking place, such as rising life expectancy of females compared with life expectancy of males, dependency ratios, mismatches in access to education for females and employability, have far reaching implications for Sri Lankan society and its future trajectory, especially in providing gender equity. Understanding the changes taking place and accounting for gender based demographic trends will guide the policy makers in selecting policy priorities which will support them to make informed decisions.